In response to deutsch

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Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4. Germany's most-visited landmarks include e. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.

With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries.

The Roma and Sinti live throughout the whole federal territory and the Frisians live on Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.

Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad. After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.

The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after The largest part of people with immigrant background is made up of returning ethnic Germans Aussiedler and Spätaussiedler , followed by Turkish, European Union, and former Yugoslav citizens.

In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.

Many companies preferred to keep these workers employed in Germany after they had trained them and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased.

As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.

Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions.

Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust. Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.

It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.

Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country.

According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2. According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.

Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population [] are Buddhism with , adherents, Judaism with , adherents, and Hinduism with some , adherents.

All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.

To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers.

The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.

It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.

It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.

Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject.

Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common. Germany has a long tradition of higher education.

The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.

In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Germany's system of hospices, called spitals , dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the s, [] Since the s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system.

Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers.

Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel ; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period.

During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.

German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.

German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic.

Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style , due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century.

Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing , Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.

Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer , Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.

Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.

German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.

After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film. The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

One of the most successful German movie series of the s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report Schoolgirl Report.

Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.

German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e. International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.

Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, different types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.

German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.

Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer.

The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star. Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually.

With more than 6. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships , more than any other.

He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.

For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe.

Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.

Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.

Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical.

Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic. German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

Germany portal Europe portal. Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.

There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax and certain other taxes in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.

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Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 15 May Archived PDF from the original on 14 July Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 27 March While no one was killed, Tunner was embarrassed that the control tower at Tempelhof had lost control of the situation while the commander of the airlift was circling overhead.

Tunner radioed for all stacked aircraft except his to be sent home immediately. This became known as "Black Friday," and Tunner personally noted it was from that date that the success of the airlift stemmed.

As a result of Black Friday, Tunner instituted a number of new rules; instrument flight rules IFR would be in effect at all times, regardless of actual visibility, and each sortie would have only one chance to land in Berlin, returning to its air base if it missed its approach, where it was slotted back into the flow.

Stacking was completely eliminated. With straight-in approaches, the planners found that in the time it had taken to unstack and land nine aircraft, 30 aircraft could be landed, bringing in tons.

Tunner decided, as he had done during the Hump operation, to replace the Cs in the airlift with Cs or larger aircraft when it was realised that it took just as long to unload a 3.

One of the reasons for this was the sloping cargo floor of the "taildragger" Cs, which made truck loading difficult.

The tricycle geared C's cargo deck was level, so that a truck could back up to it and offload cargo quickly.

The change went into full effect after 28 September Having noticed on his first inspection trip to Berlin on 31 July that there were long delays as the flight crews returned to their aircraft after getting refreshments from the terminal, Tunner banned aircrew from leaving their aircraft for any reason while in Berlin.

Instead, he equipped jeeps as mobile snack bars , handing out refreshments to the crews at their aircraft while it was being unloaded.

Gail Halvorsen later noted, "he put some beautiful German Fräuleins in that snack bar. They knew we couldn't date them, we had no time.

So they were very friendly. With unloading beginning as soon as engines were shut down on the ramp, turnaround before takeoff back to Rhein-Main or Wiesbaden was reduced to thirty minutes.

The most effective measure taken by Tunner, and the most initially resisted until it demonstrated its efficiency, was creation of a single control point in the CALTF for controlling all air movements into Berlin, rather than each air force doing its own.

The Berliners themselves solved the problem of the lack of manpower. Crews unloading and making airfield repairs at the Berlin airports were made up of almost entirely by local civilians, who were given additional rations in return.

As the crews increased in experience, the times for unloading continued to fall, with a record set for the unloading of an entire ton shipment of coal from a C in ten minutes, later beaten when a twelve-man crew unloaded the same quantity in five minutes and 45 seconds.

By the end of August , after two months, the Airlift was succeeding; daily operations flew more than 1, flights a day and delivered more than 4, tons of cargo, enough to keep West Berlin supplied.

Gail Halvorsen , one of the many Airlift pilots, decided to use his off-time to fly into Berlin and make movies with his hand-held camera.

He arrived at Tempelhof on 17 July on one of the Cs and walked over to a crowd of children who had gathered at the end of the runway to watch the aircraft.

He introduced himself and they started to ask him questions about the aircraft and their flights. As a goodwill gesture, he handed out his only two sticks of Wrigley's Doublemint Gum.

The children quickly divided up the pieces as best they could, even passing around the wrapper for others to smell.

He was so impressed by their gratitude and that they didn't fight over them, that he promised the next time he returned he would drop off more.

Before he left them, a child asked him how they would know it was him flying over. He replied, "I'll wiggle my wings. The next day on his approach to Berlin, he rocked the aircraft and dropped some chocolate bars attached to a handkerchief parachute to the children waiting below.

Every day after that, the number of children increased and he made several more drops. His commanding officer was upset when the story appeared in the news, but when Tunner heard about it, he approved of the gesture and immediately expanded it into "Operation Little Vittles".

Other pilots participated, and when news reached the US, children all over the country sent in their own candy to help out. Soon, major candy manufacturers joined in.

In the end, over twenty three tons of candy were dropped on Berlin [49] and the "operation" became a major propaganda success.

German children christened the candy-dropping aircraft " raisin bombers ". The Soviets had an advantage in conventional military forces, but were preoccupied with rebuilding their war-torn economy and society.

The US had a stronger navy and air force, and had nuclear weapons. Neither side wanted a war; the Soviets did not disrupt the airlift.

As the tempo of the Airlift grew, it became apparent that the Western powers might be able to pull off the impossible: In response, starting on 1 August , the Soviets offered free food to anyone who crossed into East Berlin and registered their ration cards there, but West Berliners overwhelmingly rejected Soviet offers of food.

Throughout the airlift, Soviet and German communists subjected the hard-pressed West Berliners to sustained psychological warfare. During the early months of the airlift, the Soviets used various methods to harass allied aircraft.

These included buzzing by Soviet planes, obstructive parachute jumps within the corridors, and shining searchlights to dazzle pilots at night.

Although the USAFE reported separate harassing events, including flak , air-to-air fire, rocketing, bombing, and explosions, this is now considered to be exaggerated.

None of these measures were effective. One day I was buzzed about three times. The following day it started again and he came across twice and I got a bit fed up with it.

So when he came for the third time, I turned the aircraft into him and it was a case of chicken, luckily he was the one who chickened out.

In the autumn of it became impossible for the non-Communist majority in Greater Berlin's citywide parliament to attend sessions at city hall within the Soviet sector.

On 9 September a crowd of , people gathered at the Brandenburg Gate , next to the ruined Reichstag in the British sector.

The Airlift was working so far, but many West Berliners feared that the Allies would eventually discontinue it. Then- SPD city councillor Ernst Reuter took the microphone and pleaded for his city, "You peoples of the world, you people of America, of England, of France, look on this city, and recognise that this city, this people, must not be abandoned—cannot be abandoned!

The crowd surged towards the Soviet-occupied sector and someone climbed up and ripped down the Soviet flag flying from atop the Brandenburg Gate.

Soviet military police MPs quickly responded, resulted in the killing of one in the unruly crowd. The resonance worldwide was enormous, notably in the United States, where a strong feeling of solidarity with Berliners reinforced a general widespread determination not to abandon them.

Berlin's parliament decided to meet instead in the canteen of the Technical College of Berlin-Charlottenburg in the British sector, boycotted by the members of SED, which had gained The city parliament, boycotted by its SED members, then voted for its re-election on 5 December , however, inhibited in the eastern sector and defamed by the SED as a Spalterwahl "divisive election".

The SED did not nominate any candidates for this election and appealed to the electorate in the western sectors to boycott the election, while the democratic parties ran for seats.

The turnout amounted to On 7 December the new, de facto West-Berlin-only city parliament elected a new city government in West Berlin headed by Lord Mayor Reuter , who had already once been elected lord mayor in early but prevented from taking office by a Soviet veto.

In the east, a communist system supervised by house, street, and block wardens was quickly implemented.

Although the early estimates were that about 4, to 5, tons per day would be needed to supply the city, this was made in the context of summer weather, when the Airlift was only expected to last a few weeks.

As the operation dragged on into autumn, the situation changed considerably. The food requirements would remain the same around 1, tons , but the need for additional coal to heat the city dramatically increased the total amount of cargo to be transported by an additional 6, tons a day.

To maintain the Airlift under these conditions, the current system would have to be greatly expanded.

Aircraft were available, and the British started adding their larger Handley Page Hastings in November, but maintaining the fleet proved to be a serious problem.

Tunner looked to the Germans once again, hiring plentiful ex- Luftwaffe ground crews. Another problem was the lack of runways in Berlin to land on: All of the existing runways required hundreds of labourers, who ran onto them between landings and dumped sand into the runway's Marston Mat pierced steel planking to soften the surface and help the planking survive.

Far from ideal, with the approach being over Berlin's apartment blocks, the runway nevertheless was a major upgrade to the airport's capabilities.

With it in place, the auxiliary runway was upgraded from Marston Matting to asphalt between September and October A similar upgrade program was carried out by the British at Gatow during the same period, also adding a second runway, using concrete.

The French Air Force , meanwhile, had become involved in the First Indochina War , so it could only bring up some old Junkers Ju 52s to support its own troops and they were too small and slow to be of much help.

However, France agreed to build a complete, new and larger airport in its sector on the shores of Lake Tegel. French military engineers, managing German construction crews, were able to complete the construction in under 90 days.

The airport was mostly built by hand, by thousands of mostly female labourers who worked day and night.

Heavy equipment was needed to level the ground, equipment that was too large and heavy to fly in on any existing cargo aircraft.

The solution was to dismantle large machines and then re-assemble them. Using the five largest American C Packet transports, it was possible to fly the machinery into West Berlin.

This not only helped to build the airfield, but also demonstrated that the Soviet blockade could not keep anything out of Berlin.

The Tegel airfield was subsequently developed into Berlin-Tegel Airport. To improve air traffic control, which would be critical as the number of flights grew, the newly developed Ground Controlled Approach radar system GCA was flown to Europe for installation at Tempelhof, with a second set installed at Fassberg in the British Zone in West Germany.

With the installation of GCA, all-weather airlift operations were assured. None of these efforts could fix the weather, which became the biggest problem.

November and December proved to be the worst months of the airlift operation. One of the longest-lasting fogs ever experienced in Berlin blanketed the entire European continent for weeks.

All too often, aircraft would make the entire flight and then be unable to land in Berlin. On 20 November , 42 aircraft departed for Berlin, but only one landed there.

At one point, the city had only a week's supply of coal left. However, the weather eventually improved, and more than , tons were delivered in January , , tons in February, and , tons in March.

By April , airlift operations were running smoothly and Tunner wanted to shake up his command to discourage complacency. He believed in the spirit of competition between units and, coupled with the idea of a big event, felt that this would encourage them to greater efforts.

He decided that, on Easter Sunday, the airlift would break all records. To do this, maximum efficiency was needed and so, to simplify cargo-handling, only coal would be airlifted.

Coal stockpiles were built up for the effort and maintenance schedules were altered so that the maximum number of aircraft were available.

From noon on 15 April to noon on 16 April , crews worked around the clock. When it was over, 12, tons of coal had been delivered in 1, flights, without a single accident.

In total, the airlift delivered , tons in April. On 21 April, the tonnage of supplies flown into the city exceeded that previously brought by rail.

The next day, the US State Department stated that the "way appears clear" for the blockade to end. Soon afterwards, the four powers began serious negotiations, and a settlement was reached on Western terms.

On 4 May , the Allies announced an agreement to end the blockade in eight days. The Soviet blockade of Berlin was lifted at one minute after midnight on 12 May Later that day, an enormous crowd celebrated the end of the blockade.

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United Nations Development Programme. Archived PDF from the original on 22 March Retrieved 14 September Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch in German 6th ed.

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Chris K , Aug 27, Muchas gracias por la correccion! Si con "mail" quieres decir "e-mail", debes escribir eso en vez de "letter" lo que siempre significa "carta".

Bienvenido a los foros aunque yo tb soy bastante nueva! De nada y gracias por la bienvenida. The Airlift was working so far, but many West Berliners feared that the Allies would eventually discontinue it.

Then- SPD city councillor Ernst Reuter took the microphone and pleaded for his city, "You peoples of the world, you people of America, of England, of France, look on this city, and recognise that this city, this people, must not be abandoned—cannot be abandoned!

The crowd surged towards the Soviet-occupied sector and someone climbed up and ripped down the Soviet flag flying from atop the Brandenburg Gate.

Soviet military police MPs quickly responded, resulted in the killing of one in the unruly crowd. The resonance worldwide was enormous, notably in the United States, where a strong feeling of solidarity with Berliners reinforced a general widespread determination not to abandon them.

Berlin's parliament decided to meet instead in the canteen of the Technical College of Berlin-Charlottenburg in the British sector, boycotted by the members of SED, which had gained The city parliament, boycotted by its SED members, then voted for its re-election on 5 December , however, inhibited in the eastern sector and defamed by the SED as a Spalterwahl "divisive election".

The SED did not nominate any candidates for this election and appealed to the electorate in the western sectors to boycott the election, while the democratic parties ran for seats.

The turnout amounted to On 7 December the new, de facto West-Berlin-only city parliament elected a new city government in West Berlin headed by Lord Mayor Reuter , who had already once been elected lord mayor in early but prevented from taking office by a Soviet veto.

In the east, a communist system supervised by house, street, and block wardens was quickly implemented. Although the early estimates were that about 4, to 5, tons per day would be needed to supply the city, this was made in the context of summer weather, when the Airlift was only expected to last a few weeks.

As the operation dragged on into autumn, the situation changed considerably. The food requirements would remain the same around 1, tons , but the need for additional coal to heat the city dramatically increased the total amount of cargo to be transported by an additional 6, tons a day.

To maintain the Airlift under these conditions, the current system would have to be greatly expanded. Aircraft were available, and the British started adding their larger Handley Page Hastings in November, but maintaining the fleet proved to be a serious problem.

Tunner looked to the Germans once again, hiring plentiful ex- Luftwaffe ground crews. Another problem was the lack of runways in Berlin to land on: All of the existing runways required hundreds of labourers, who ran onto them between landings and dumped sand into the runway's Marston Mat pierced steel planking to soften the surface and help the planking survive.

Far from ideal, with the approach being over Berlin's apartment blocks, the runway nevertheless was a major upgrade to the airport's capabilities.

With it in place, the auxiliary runway was upgraded from Marston Matting to asphalt between September and October A similar upgrade program was carried out by the British at Gatow during the same period, also adding a second runway, using concrete.

The French Air Force , meanwhile, had become involved in the First Indochina War , so it could only bring up some old Junkers Ju 52s to support its own troops and they were too small and slow to be of much help.

However, France agreed to build a complete, new and larger airport in its sector on the shores of Lake Tegel. French military engineers, managing German construction crews, were able to complete the construction in under 90 days.

The airport was mostly built by hand, by thousands of mostly female labourers who worked day and night. Heavy equipment was needed to level the ground, equipment that was too large and heavy to fly in on any existing cargo aircraft.

The solution was to dismantle large machines and then re-assemble them. Using the five largest American C Packet transports, it was possible to fly the machinery into West Berlin.

This not only helped to build the airfield, but also demonstrated that the Soviet blockade could not keep anything out of Berlin.

The Tegel airfield was subsequently developed into Berlin-Tegel Airport. To improve air traffic control, which would be critical as the number of flights grew, the newly developed Ground Controlled Approach radar system GCA was flown to Europe for installation at Tempelhof, with a second set installed at Fassberg in the British Zone in West Germany.

With the installation of GCA, all-weather airlift operations were assured. None of these efforts could fix the weather, which became the biggest problem.

November and December proved to be the worst months of the airlift operation. One of the longest-lasting fogs ever experienced in Berlin blanketed the entire European continent for weeks.

All too often, aircraft would make the entire flight and then be unable to land in Berlin. On 20 November , 42 aircraft departed for Berlin, but only one landed there.

At one point, the city had only a week's supply of coal left. However, the weather eventually improved, and more than , tons were delivered in January , , tons in February, and , tons in March.

By April , airlift operations were running smoothly and Tunner wanted to shake up his command to discourage complacency.

He believed in the spirit of competition between units and, coupled with the idea of a big event, felt that this would encourage them to greater efforts.

He decided that, on Easter Sunday, the airlift would break all records. To do this, maximum efficiency was needed and so, to simplify cargo-handling, only coal would be airlifted.

Coal stockpiles were built up for the effort and maintenance schedules were altered so that the maximum number of aircraft were available.

From noon on 15 April to noon on 16 April , crews worked around the clock. When it was over, 12, tons of coal had been delivered in 1, flights, without a single accident.

In total, the airlift delivered , tons in April. On 21 April, the tonnage of supplies flown into the city exceeded that previously brought by rail.

The next day, the US State Department stated that the "way appears clear" for the blockade to end. Soon afterwards, the four powers began serious negotiations, and a settlement was reached on Western terms.

On 4 May , the Allies announced an agreement to end the blockade in eight days. The Soviet blockade of Berlin was lifted at one minute after midnight on 12 May Later that day, an enormous crowd celebrated the end of the blockade.

Nevertheless, supply flights to Berlin continued for some time to build up a comfortable surplus, though night flying and then weekend flights could be eliminated once the surplus was large enough.

By 24 July , three months' worth of supplies had been amassed, ensuring that there was ample time to restart the Airlift if needed. The Berlin Airlift officially ended on 30 September , after fifteen months.

In total, the USAF delivered 1,, tons and the RAF , tons, [nb 6] totalling 2,, tons, nearly two-thirds of which was coal, on , flights to Berlin.

The Cs and Cs together flew over 92 million miles in the process, almost the distance from Earth to the Sun. A total of fatalities were recorded as a result of the operation, including 40 Britons and 31 Americans, [87] mostly due to non-flying accidents.

Diplomatic approval was granted by a four-power organisation called the Berlin Air Safety Center , also located in the American sector. Tegel was developed into West Berlin's principal airport.

As a result of the development of these two airports, Tempelhof was closed in October , [97] while Gatow is now home of the Museum of the German Luftwaffe and a housing development.

During the s and s Schönefeld had its own crossing points through the Berlin Wall and communist fortifications for western citizens.

The US, British and French authorities also agreed to replace their military administrations in their occupation zones with High Commissioners operating within the terms of a three-power occupation statute.

Animosities between Germans and the Western Allies—Britain, France, and the United States—were greatly reduced by the airlift, with the former enemies recognizing common interests, namely freedom and capitalism, shared values and mutual respect.

It is owned and operated by the Berlin Airlift Historical Foundation. These machines could carry a payload of up to 3. These made up a total of aircraft, which made them the most used types.

Other American aircraft such as the five C Packets , and the one YCA Stratofreighter , with a payload of 20 tons—a gigantic load for that time—were only sparsely used.

The British used a considerable variety of aircraft types. Many aircraft were either former bombers or civil versions of bombers.

In the absence of enough transports, the British chartered many civilian aircraft. These included civilian aircraft operated by Aquila Airways.

In winter, when ice covered the Berlin rivers and made the use of flying boats difficult, the British used other aircraft in their place.

Altogether, a total of aircraft were engaged in the Berlin Airlift, more than of which belonged to civilian operators. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Part of a series on the. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to People's Socialist Republic of Albania to Somali Democratic Republic to People's Republic of China to Forest Brothers in Lithuania in Latvia in Estonia.

Clay , June [47]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. In all, about 90 conventionally-armed Bs were assigned.

Call it Operation Vittles! At the time a codename was needed to coordinate activities. Large suggested "Vittles" because of its probable unfamiliarity to the Soviets.

Another 75 were always in the maintenance pipeline raised in April to , and 19 more were assigned to the airlift replacement training unit at Great Falls AFB , Montana.

Retrieved 22 February Retrieved 11 June Federal Research Division , Library of Congress. Archived from the original pdf on 4 September Creating a Nation and a Society.

Chanak , Burma —47, Berlin Spellmount Publishers Ltd, The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October Retrieved 12 August Breaking the Soviet Blockade".

Journal of Contemporary History.

In response to deutsch -

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